Java Serialization


Java cloning is the most debatable topic in Java community and it surely does have its drawbacks but it is still the most popular and easy way of creating a copy of an object until that object is full filling mandatory conditions of Java cloning. There is an interface named Serializable in Java that adds a serializable behavior to the class. The Java Serialization API provides a standard mechanism for developers to handle object serialization. Java object serialization, introduced as a part of new feature set of Java Development Kit 1. Following packages are provided by Java to serialize and. We will serialize and then deserialize object. Java Serialization Debugging Today I had a fight with Java as I was inadvertently trying to serialize something that was not serializable. Java's Serialization feature has garnered several years' worth of security exploits and zero day attacks. However there are some pitfalls that you need to avoid. Java is a high-level programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. To be able to serialize those objects in a meaningful way, you need to register the JavaTimeModule, contained in the dependency library jackson-datatype-jsr310. Using Java as an example platform for serialization, an object of type Address would logically have members of street, city, state, and postal code as shown in the diagram below. Contrast Security has a solution that uses our patented, powerful application security instrumentation platform to find and fix this problem both quickly and accurately. It serializes the fields as an array by default. The advantage of serialization is that it enables us to send multiple data (example: student name, student grade) at once. We use three different Gson APIs to work with JSON. Avro Serialization in Java There is a mechanism in Java which is known as object serialization. XStream is a library to serialize JAVA objects to XML and back. In the next 15 min you learn how to synchronize access to mutable shared variables via the synchronized keyword, locks and semaphores. Java Serialization. Java is a high-level programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. Deep clone using serialization Serialize managing finally and IOException Deserialize managing finally and IOException This class throws exceptions for invalid null inputs. Externalizable. Serialization in Java is an operation in which an object's internal state is translated into a stream of bytes. Java Serializable interface guarantees the ability to serialize the objects. Performance. #ThreadSafe# Since: 1. Boon is the fastest way to serialize and parse JSON in Java so far. Advanced Java binary serialization annotations are available in the serial module (since v2. For example, if we want to send a student class, we would serialize the class, send it to client, and the client would deserialize it on its side. Serialization process comprises the storing the object's current state to a stream as well as restoring an object from that particular stream. This is a comparison of data-serialization formats, various ways to convert complex objects to sequences of bits. Using the default mechanism properly, Java serialization is fast enough for most applications. NET objects into their JSON equivalent and back again by mapping the. Serialization in java is a mechanism of writing the state of an object into a byte stream and deserialization is the process of converting a stream of bytes back into a copy of the original object. Serializable interface. It is used for reading and writing JSON among other tasks. The variable must be equal to one of the values that have been. The first parameter is the input to the handler which can be event data (published by an event source) or custom input you provide such as a string or any custom data object. Serialization and Deserialization in Java August 1, 2017 April 9, 2019 codeNuclear Serialization: Serialization is a mechanism of converting the state of an object into a byte stream. Java Object Serialization From its inception, Java offered support for linearizing objects into bytes and then restoring the original objects later. ) Person class or POJO class: We would like to serialize the Person class. Then why go ahead and try to make it faster? Java Serialization was designed in a very early stage of the Java technology development history. All Java programs have at least one thread, known as the main thread, which is created by the JVM at the program’s start, when the main() method is invoked with the main thread. Serialization is a mechanism of converting the state of an object into a byte stream. Java Serialization:Process of storing the state of object as it is in Java is called Serialization. A serialized object can be written into a file/database, and read from the file/database and deserialized. Java API takes care of the serialization protocol and persists the java object in a file in conformance with the protocol. Serialization is used for persistence in Java. This is the java programming questions and answers section on "Java Serialization" with an explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. ObjectInputStream knows how to get an object from a stream. The serialization interface has no methods or fields and serves only to identify the semantics of being serializable. The following article contains the steps to serialize an object in Java. Source code is available at author's Github repository. Java cloning is the most debatable topic in Java community and it surely does have its drawbacks but it is still the most popular and easy way of creating a copy of an object until that object is full filling mandatory conditions of Java cloning. We will serialize the Employee object to JSON and back. It is mainly used in EJB, JPA, Hibernate, RMI, and JMS technologies Object serialization is the process of saving an object's state to a sequence of bytes, as well as the process of rebuilding those bytes into a live object at some future time. Using the default mechanism properly, Java serialization is fast enough for most applications. To serialize and deserialize types that are not natively supported by JavaScriptSerializer, implement custom converters by using the JavaScriptConverter class. This tutorial gives a complete understanding of Java. Agenda 2015/10/23 6 1 What is serialization? 2 What's the issue? 3 How to exploit it? 4 Where is serialization used? 5 Case-Study: CVE-2015-6576 Exploiting Deserialization Vulnerabilities in Java 7. At some later time, you can retrieve the saved data values and create an equivalent object. In this chapter we will try to understand this concept in the context of Java language. An Axis compliant Serializer must provide one or more of the following methods: public (Class javaType, QName xmlType) public () This will allow for construction of generic factories that introspect the class to determine how to construct a deserializer. 2 features (e. Java serialization enables writing Java objects to file system for permanent storage or on network to transfer to other applications. Introduction. In this section you will learn about serialization in java. You'll get a NotSerializableException when you try to serialize the object. If you define any data member as transient, it will not be serialized. It is mainly used in EJB, JPA, Hibernate, RMI, and JMS technologies Object serialization is the process of saving an object's state to a sequence of bytes, as well as the process of rebuilding those bytes into a live object at some future time. Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes to store the object or transmit it to memory, a database, or a file. This one is much more focused and presents a single detail: the Serialization Proxy Pattern. If your class implements the tagging interface java. So if we need to serialize any object then it can be read and deserialize it using object's type and other. BurnIgnorance. Serialization and Deserialization in Java Serialization is a process by which we can store the state of an object into any storage medium. The Java platform specifies a default way by which serializable objects are serialized. Serialization is defined for this purpose, and Java components use this protocol to transfer objects. As expected, the validation method is executed on the replacement object, not on the one that was originally de-serialized - this one will be silently discarded. On other hand,Deserialization is conversion of byte code to corresponding java objects. Here is what you need to know about Java file i/o and serialization. Serialization and Deserialization in Java. The process of serilization in Java is JVM independent which allows the serialization to take place on one platform and de-serialization on another platform. This one is much more focused and presents a single detail: the Serialization Proxy Pattern. One of its main features is the generation of standard XML, which is language independant. – one sink stream. Serialization is the process of converting an object into a sequence of bytes and rebuilding those bytes later into a new object. The JVM calls the serialization methods from our class using reflection. Java Serialization and Deserialization October 17, 2015 0 Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes and saving it to the file system. We can serialize object …. Using Java as an example platform for serialization, an object of type Address would logically have members of street, city, state, and postal code as shown in the diagram below. The parser used in kSOAP2 is kXML an efficient Pull Parser type of parser. There is a reason why the document boldly and openly states: "we can get this over and done with and drop the old serialization mechanism in as little as 18 months" (even if that's a bit optimistic). The Microsoft. Meet Bond, Microsoft Bond - A New Data Serialization Framework Andrei Smirnov Andrei has 15+ years working for the likes of Microsoft, EMC, Motorola, and Deutsche Bank on mobile, desktop, and web using C++, C#, and JS. If you define any data member as transient, it will not be serialized. Through Serialization concept we can convert Java objects into bytes that are persisted to discs or database or it can be sent through streams. (Serialization to/from Network) • Machine 1 > java FrameServer 8888 – Open frame (600x400, no circles, top left corner) – Move window around – Resize it – Click to add circles • Machine 2 > java FrameClient coreservlets. This is done using Object Streams in Java. Serializable interface. Serialization namespace provides this capability. Home Subscribe Gson tutorial. Assists with the serialization process and performs additional functionality based on serialization. In the serialization process, an object's attributes are converted into XML elements and stored in an XML document. Save the file using writeObject(obj); Program for Serialization What if you have something top secret, like your password which should not be saved. It serializes the fields as an array by default. java-serialization-benchmarking. We would be using "inputfile" at the receivers end to recreate the Object from stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of serialization where we retrieve the object back from the storage medium. ‘Effective Java 2’ Joshua Bloch explains another approach called serialization proxy pattern where you actually serialize the object of another class called serialization proxy class with your class data and when this serialization proxy class object is de-serialized, it will construct an object of the original type and return back. Before delving into more detailed aspect of Serialization, let's start with the definition. The byte stream is platform neutral hence once an object is created in one system, can be deserialized in other platforms. java, this file will create the UIMap object and test the Java serialization process via the Externalizable interface. Serializable, java. Serialization [12] is used for persistent storage of Java objects to a file, database, network, process or any other system. Deserialization is its reverse process. The ordered stream of bytes can then be read at a later time, or in another environment, to recreate the original objects. The data is actually an object that you want to send over the network. This serialization and deserialization helps us in many scenarios like gaming, session state management etc. Deep clone an Object using serialization. And if a candidate is not aware of Serialization in Java, he/she will certainly feel uncomfortable due to lack of knowledge. Deserialization is the reverse process where the byte stream is used to recreate the actual Java object in memory. We will start with serializing Java object to JSON string: Suppose you have a bean class (having proper getter/setter methods) with following data:. We can serialize object …. Showing 1-20 of 115 topics. This mechanism is used to persist the object. Serializable interface. It does not include markup languages used exclusively as document file formats. txt Status of this Memo. See JDK-8155760. serialization' logger, if enabled. It is a first step in the right direction but it does not completely solve the problem and is not suitable for enterprise production environments. Question : 2. Table of content. To make a Java object serializable you implement the java. Serialization is the process of taking the state of an object and persisting it in some fashion. serialization Interface Serializer Type Parameters: T - Type to be serialized from. object instance. It is applicable to all major programming languages. Serializable and let Java's default serialization mechanisms do their thing. Serialization lets you simply say "save this object and all of its instance variables. Java serialization synonyms, Java serialization pronunciation, Java serialization translation, English dictionary definition of Java serialization. The Java Serialization API provides a standard mechanism for developers to handle object serialization. If you define any data member as transient, it will not be serialized. In this tutorial you will learn how to override the default Java serialization mechanism and also how to provide a custom serialization implementation. Attendees; CalendarContract. The InvokerTransformer is one specific implementation of the Transformer functional interface which can be used to transform objects in a collection (specifically by calling a method via reflection invocation). A) Serialization : Serialization is the process of turning structured objects into a byte stream for transmission over a network or for writing to…. Over time those libraries will be made more stand-alone, but they should be usable independently of MongoDB in their current state. Gson type adapter to serialize and deserialize byte arrays in base64 - GsonHelper. In simple words serialization is converting an object to stream of bytes and de-serialization is rebuilding the object from stream of bytes. Serialization and Deserialization in Java. An ObjectOutputStream writes primitive data types and graphs of Java objects to an OutputStream. Java object serialization is the conversion of an object to a byte stream ( serialization ), transfer of the byte steam, and conversion of the byte stream back to a Java object ( deserialization ). Protocol buffers currently support generated code in Java, Python, Objective-C, and C++. This is only a marker interface which tells the Java platform that the object is serializable. NET object or list using JavaScriptSerializer class. The String class and all the wrapper classes implements java. You need to roll your own. The Serialization example includes three programs. Serialization is a generic marshalling mechanism, and generic mechanisms tend to be slow. Thick Client Penetration Testing - 3 covering the Java Deserialization Exploit Resulting Remote Code Execution. About XStream. Serialize an object using XML Tag(s): XML. Java objects can be written to a file. The Java Series. XStream even allows to "deserialize" non-serializable types, broadening. It is mainly used to travel object's state on the network (known as marshaling). Designer serialization is a special form of serialization that involves the kind of object persistence associated with development tools. One of the new features developed for JDK 9, JEP 290: Filter Incoming Serialization Data, has been back-ported to JDK 8, 7, and 6. A class must implement "java. 0 and XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1. Java's serialization algorithm. Stated differently, serialization is the conversion of a Java object into a static stream (sequence) of bytes which can then be saved to a database or transferred over a network. Boon is the fastest way to serialize and parse JSON in Java so far. If you don't implement the Serializable interface and try to serialize the object, java. Apache Commons Collection is a Java library offering additional collection classes in addition to the Java Collection framework. In first part we have discussed what is serialization and how to achieve it in Java. Compared with traditional Serialization, Parcelables take on the order of 10x less time to both serialize and deserialize. Serialization and Deserialization in Java Serialization is a process by which we can store the state of an object into any storage medium. Filter actions are logged to the 'java. Load Testing Java Serialization performance. @cjiang Java serialization is a more efficient than automatic xml serialization - in each of processing memory, wire usage and cpu usage to encode and decode. With a speedier XML parser, the performance gap with respect to the processing time narrows. For more efficient serialization, there are haskell libraries that allow high-speed serialization in binary format, e. 0 and can be used from the command line, in an applet or a servlet, or as a module in other program. A class must implement java. @JsonComponent is annotation using that we can customize the JSON request or response. The following program illustrates how to use object serialization and deserialization. Java Serialiation API provides the features to perform seralization & de-serialization. The String class and all the wrapper classes implements java. Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes and saving it to the file system. The variable must be equal to one of the values that have been. Java provides a mechanism, called object serialization where an object can be represented as a sequence of bytes that includes the object's data as well as information about the object's type and the types of data stored in the object. In Java, the package name is used as the Java package unless you have explicitly specified a java_package, as we have here. So do similar changes to superclasses or changing the superclass type. In our last tutorial, we discussed Java Packages tutorial. The Java serialization mechanism can be used to transmit Java objects from one JVM to another or store Java objects outside of a JVM. We have seen both saving and restoring object using serialization and de-serialization and also explored some key concepts related to how serialization works in Java. As expected, the validation method is executed on the replacement object, not on the one that was originally de-serialized - this one will be silently discarded. Orthogonal specification of class serialization and archive format. At the end of this chapter we will be able to. Use a business value, which is unlikely to change. Fortunately, the Java serialization takes care of all the jobs for us. Serialization is used to export application data into a file. beans package provides useful methods to save an object state into an XML file and easily read it back. Java provides serialization where object represented as sequence of bytes, serialization process is JVM independent, which means an object can be serialized in a platform and de-serialized on different platform. Since RPC services default to the soap section 5 encoding rules, objects will be encoded via "multi-ref" serialization, which allows object graphs to be encoded. The reverse process, converting from binary representation to Java objects is called deserialization. In RMI and some cases of CORBA, the client AUT creates a new instance of a Java object using the java. Serialization is the process of writing the state of the object to the stream, a object can be represented. Once serialized, this data is converted into a linear data format (such as the XML text form in the diagram) representing the Address object. The first parameter is the input to the handler which can be event data (published by an event source) or custom input you provide such as a string or any custom data object. Serialization is a process of converting objects to the XML instance and Deserialization is the process of constructing objects out of the XML instance. I have read some posts and docs about the subject and I tried to do a simple example (below) public class SterializeObject implements. Gson Dependency. Hibernate an open source Java persistence framework project. , read concern); however, if you are currently on a version 2. If you don't plan ahead and have a running production system with Java serialization, you're in for a bad surprise - you'll have to switch the serialization technology mid-flight in a. By using FileInputStream and ObjectInputStream classes we can achieve Deserialization in Java. A java class can be saved in byte stream with a version id and can be invoked again. Axis will deserialize XML into Java objects which can be fed to your service, and will serialize the returned Java object(s) from your service back into XML. Serialization means turns objects into binary form, usually with the aim of saving them to a file. Fortunately, the Java serialization takes care of all the jobs for us. Binary serialization preserves the state of the object between different invocations of an application by preserving type fidelity. This Quiz consists of Serialization and Deserialization's 20 Multiple choice questions in 1 set - Java Serialization and Deserialization quiz - MCQ Contents of page > Serialization and Deserialization Java - MCQ set 1 (20 questions, 48 marks) Note : Each set consists of 20 questions Each set consists of 2 EASY level difficulty questions 1 mark. Deep clone using serialization Serialize managing finally and IOException Deserialize managing finally and IOException This class throws exceptions for invalid null inputs. Java serialization is a simple but powerful feature of the language, and you definitely will have a chance to use it in your applications. It writes out the metadata of the class associated with an instance. The enum is defined by Java as, An enum type is a special data type that enables for a variable to be a set of predefined constants. In Android, Parcelables are a great way to serialize Java Objects between Contexts. Serializable, java. It essentially is a modified Repeater tab that uses the payload generation from ysoserial. An ObjectOutputStream writes primitive data types and graphs of Java objects to an OutputStream. Deserialization is the reverse process where the byte stream is used to recreate the actual Java object in memory. Java Object Serialization, introduced as part of the ground-breaking feature set that made up JDK 1. You need to roll your own. We want to serialize (to a file) a List of objects. To be able to serialize those objects in a meaningful way, you need to register the JavaTimeModule, contained in the dependency library jackson-datatype-jsr310. Serialization is the process of saving an object's state to a sequence of bytes; deserialization is the process of rebuilding those bytes into a live object. The Java Series. The serialization mechanism generates an object graph for serialization. Load testing Java Serialization performance is not an easy matter as requests and responses are binary. Object Serialization is a process used to convert the state of an object into a byte stream, which can be persisted into disk/file or sent over the network to any other running Java virtual machine. Externalizable) Serializable: Java, through introspection, guesses the types of class attributes to know how to serialize/deserialize them, but this "magic" is not free, it has a performance penalty. Object Serialization and Deserialization is a very interesting topic in Java. Java provides serialization where object represented as sequence of bytes, serialization process is JVM independent, which means an object can be serialized in a platform and de-serialized on different platform. In this post, I would like to explain the basic coding standard rules that can followed while using Serialization in Java Projects. Since the J2ME. An handy tool for developers. By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. You need to master serialization and file i/o to save objects to a hard drive, a USB drive, or share objects over a network. Java Serializable interface guarantees the ability to serialize the objects. Java 8 LocalDate with Jackson Serialize and Deserialize Example - RESTful WS Although I having using Joda Time for years, it is now time to migrate over to the Java 8 Date and Time API (JSR310), and make use of the new LocalDate and LocalTime classes. Perform powerful object relational mapping and query databases using HQL and SQL. The Java Serialization API provides a standard mechanism for developers to handle object serialization. serializable interface. Java provides a mechanism, called object serialization where an object can be represented as a sequence of bytes that includes the object's data as well as information about the object's type and the types of data stored in the object. It writes out the metadata of the class associated with an instance. Welcome to the second part of my Java 8 Concurrency Tutorial out of a series of guides teaching multi-threaded programming in Java 8 with easily understood code examples. Note that serialization is a more primitive notion than persistence; although pickle reads and writes file objects, it does not handle the issue of naming persistent objects, nor the (even more complicated) issue of concurrent access to persistent. Gson Dependency. The process of recreating object from bytes stream is called deserialization. is an illegal method name in Java, but not in byte code. Object Serialization and Deserialization is a very interesting topic in Java. Object serialization is the process of saving an object's state to a sequence of bytes, as well as the process of rebuilding those bytes into a live object at some future time. Serialization helps us to save and retrieve the state of an object. An object is serializable (itself implements the Serializable interface) even if its superclass is not. Serialization is the process of bringing an object into a form that it can be written on stream. In this video we'll also finally solve the mystery of those annoying warnings you may have spotted in Eclipse about serial. Serialization in Java is achieved with Serializable interface. In fact the Java Serialization Stream format (contrary to most other serialization formats) is designed such that it has well-defined grammar and you can in theory build parser that creates parse trees given only the definitions of classes involved without running any code from these classes. Most of the core java topics found at Java Topics. Serialization in Java allows us to convert an Object to stream that we can send over the network or save it as file or store in DB for later usage. Serializable Interface. The next time the program runs, we get this List straight from the disk. Java is a high-level programming language originally developed by Sun Microsystems and released in 1995. Please note that we do not store any user details. Known as the Object Serialization model, this functionality can be used to transmit objects over a network, or store objects persistently to disk. Java serialization is a very important feature to learn. Similarly, height is annotated with @JsonInclude(value=Include. A Java object is serializable if its class or any of its superclasses implements either the java. More explained in Simple terms for Beginnner. Serializable is a marker interface which doesn’t have any methods defined. It does not include markup languages used exclusively as document file formats. Serialization in java is a mechanism. To use Java Serial Killer, right click on a POST request with a serialized Java object in the body and select the Send to Java Serial Killer item. Serialization in Java. Serialization is also faster, because in Java, objects are handled on the heap, and take much longer than if they were represented as primitives on the stack. Working with ObjectOutputStream and ObjectInputStream. The example can be enhanced or modified to perform addition tasks. In this example, we have an Employee class that contains some mixed type of properties namely integer, String and custom Compensation class type. The concept of Serialization and deserialization is used whenever data pertaining to objects have to be sent from one application to another. After a serialized object has been written into a file, it. Serialize Java 8 LocalDate With Jackson In Spring Boot This tutorial is going to illustrate how to serialize Java 8 LocaleDate with Jackson in Spring Boot. But, for a large number of objects, ORM, Database etc might be better. Serialization and Deserialization in Java Tutorial With Example is today's topic. Why Java Serialization Load Testing? Java Serialization on top of the HTTP protocol allows remote service calls to be executed between the client and server using specific frameworks such as Spring Remoting (Spring's HTTP Invoker). The concept of Serialization and deserialization is used whenever data pertaining to objects have to be sent from one application to another. What is Java serialization? Meaning of Java serialization as a legal term. Java provides a mechanism, called object serialization where an object can be represented as a sequence of bytes that includes the object's data as well as information about the object's type and the types of data stored in the object. In General, Object Serialization refers to writing an object into a stream,you can consider a stream as a data structure used to store values. Luckily, Java offers a more elegant way called object serialization, which greatly simplifies the process of objects exchange. Serializing list is a little tricky since by default the type info is not stored while serializing and deserializing lists. The reverse process of this is called de. It is the most common topic in Java about which most of the people are either unaware or having so much of misconception in their mind. Portability with Java serialization. Serialize and Unserialize online tool. Part 1: Threads and Executors. One last note: always have in mind that objects serialized with one version of Java may not work on another version of Java. ‘Effective Java 2’ Joshua Bloch explains another approach called serialization proxy pattern where you actually serialize the object of another class called serialization proxy class with your class data and when this serialization proxy class object is de-serialized, it will construct an object of the original type and return back. We will get NullPointerException in the line 27. Simple is a lightweight, high performance XML serialization and configuration framework that uses annotations to describe the XML structure of an object. A simple java class to serialize and deserialize object to a byte array. In this chapter we will try to understand this concept in the context of Java language. Serialization and Deserialization in Java. An attacker notices the "R00". 0 and XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1. CalendarAlerts. Michael Fitzgerald. Top 10-2017 A8-Insecure Deserialization. Speed, speed, speed. Download Faster Java Serialization for free. The reverse process of creating object from sequence of bytes is called deserialization. Also provides a function to clone an object. Convert internal representation to object. java, this file will create the UIMap object and test the Java serialization process via the Externalizable interface. Jackson is one of the most common Java libraries for processing JSON. The Java platform specifies a default way by which serializable objects are serialized. With a speedier XML parser, the performance gap with respect to the processing time narrows. Serialization is a mechanism of converting the state of an object into a byte stream. The Serialization example includes three programs. 1, provides a feature to transform a group or a single object into a stream of bits, or array of bytes for storing or sending over the network as such so the above said stream of bits or array of bytes can be transformed back into the Java objects. The enum is defined by Java as, An enum type is a special data type that enables for a variable to be a set of predefined constants. Gson (also known as Google Gson) is an open source Java library to serialize and deserialize Java objects to (and from) JSON. Java objects can be written to a file. To serialize an object, use the Serialize method. Structural — enables special structural serialization. Date is immutable. Its goal is to provide an XML framework that enables rapid development of XML configuration and communication systems. Java - Object Serialization - In this Java tutorial, I will show you how you can implement the serializable interface on a class. Categories Is it correct to say that due to garbage collection feature in java, a java. Attendees; CalendarContract. In this post, we are going to explore an important Java concept frequently asked during Job’s interviews i. Java Serialization API Object serialization is the process of saving an object's state to a sequence of bytes, as well as the process of rebuilding those bytes into a live object at some future time. Simple is a high performance XML serialization and configuration framework for Java. Serialization in Java - readResolve(), writeReplace() and more Quite some time since my last post :) A friend at work mentioned that you cannot serialize classes with a non-serializable parent class that does not have an empty constructor. Serialization is the process of transforming an existing in-memory Java object to a stream of bytes.